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PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) is a method created 1987 to measure the level of symptoms of schizophrenia, commonly used in studies on pharmacotherapy. MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) is a scale for evaluation of the level of depression, filled in by a clinician. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a neuropsychological test used to measure executive functions, particularly mental flexibility in light of changing stimuli. Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is used to measure the verbal and lingual ability to learn (acquiring, storing and retrieving verbal material). Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) is a method used to measure visual and cognitive functions, as well as perceptual organisation. Trail Making Test versions A and B (TMT A and TMT B) are tests used to measure visual attention and task switching. Wechsler Digit Span is a part of Wechsler's battery used to measure rote memory, whereas the test of fluency in terms of vocabulary measures the ability to retrieve words from memory and update them.
Compared with the group of NC, SCD showed significant decline only in memory tests, such as AVLT 30-min delayed free recall, AVLT recognition, Rey-Osterrieth CFT recall and PrM test. There was no significant difference in other cognitive performances between SCD and NC. However, the MCI group showed significant decline in all cognitive performances in comparison with the NC group, such as AVLT, Rey CFT recall and PrM tests for memory, BNT and AFT tests for language, SDMT, TMT-A, TMT-B and SCWT tests for attention and executive, DOT for verbal working memory, Rey CFT copy test for visuospatial ability. Even compared with the group of SCD, the MCI group showed obvious decline in most cognitive tests except for Rey CFT copy test.
All testing was administered in a closed, sound-attenuated testing room, with a supervisor attending. In those tested twice (validity and reliability), one of two investigators (a research nurse or AB) attended at each session. Among INPH patients, testing patient-computer interface and the ability to complete the test, the research nurse attended all sessions. The investigator (AB) who administered the conventional tests was trained and supervised by a neuropsychologist (EE). The investigators were blinded to any previous results. The investigators were instructed to answer questions about the tests, but not to help during testing. In order to make the patients familiar with the computer equipment, this investigation started with a simple introductory task requiring the participants to press buttons on the screen with a stylus. Each test was preceded by a practice test. There was automatic recorded verbal feedback if the task was misunderstood. Results were stored to disk, and a test report was automatically generated for each test session.
The implemented battery is a focused battery with tests chosen to be sensitive to the cognitive profile of INPH. The battery was never intended to be a diagnostic battery in the way that a neuropsychologist administers a battery. Therefore, its utility for differential diagnosis was not examined. It should be warranted that computerized testing will not provide the qualitative data, or interpretation of scores, as from a full neuropsychological evaluation. This requires a professional neuropsychologist. Although the test is fully automatic, for ethical reasons, the presence of personnel while testing is mandatory, as to clarify instructions or halt the test, if cannot be completed . The battery is translated from Swedish to English and Danish. The software will remain free of charge and we have an ambition to translate it to more languages. 1e1e36bf2d