Equilibrium English Subtitle Free Download

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The equation holds when the reaction is either reversible or irreversible but the trend in the equilibrium constant is more strongly affected by the substituents in the ortho- or para-position.

The Ramsey equation of organic chemistry deals with the relationship between the steric properties of substituents and the equilibrium constant for substitution reactions of alkenes by amines in the presence of base.[9][10] This equation also relies on the fundamental Brønsted–Lowry principle; it describes the relationship between the equilibrium constant for a reaction and the basicity of the amine. This equation is not as well known as the Hammett equation, but it is more often used for prediction of reaction rates. In organic reactions, the equation is often used to estimate the steric factors that influence reaction rates. (The steric factor of substituents is the coefficient of kinetic isotope effect, which can easily be calculated from the standard and heavy-atom kinetic isotope effects.)

The Hammett equation is named after the American chemist, chemist, and Nobel laureate Louis Plack Hammett. An English translation[6] of the original equation can be found on the English Wikipedia page .

Hammett used the reaction constants of the two sets of reactions to define a linear free-energy relationship with the substituent constant as the slope and the reaction constant as the Y-intercept. He measured the constants for a series of reactions using a benzene-water system, and then applied these constants to additional sets of reactions. The substituent constant and reaction constant may then be calculated for any other reaction which can be modelled using the Hammett equation. This is a simple inversion of a free-energy equation.

The Hammett equation has also been used to calculate the rate of radical reactions, such as the rate of the Criegee rearrangement. The Hammett equation has also been used to calculate the activation free energy of reactions, such as the rate of nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions.[8] 827ec27edc