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Soley We Sink 2011 320 VERIFIED

In 2009 the Aurora Fund donated about ISK 20 million to the Icelandic Red Cross and three of their projects. One of the projects, called Vin (English: oasis) is a place that the Red Cross has established for people who have mental problems. Friends of Vin was founded in 2011 in order to secure the future of Vin as the Red Cross was considering closing the place down due to lack of funding. In 2012 an agreement was made between the City of Reykjavik, the Ministry of Welfare, the Red Cross and Friends of Vin to secure the operation of Vin for three years. Friends of Vin agreed to provide a part of the operational funding that is needed and in that way the Aurora Fund will renew its support to Vin by providing ISK one million to Friends of Vin each year for three years.

Soley We Sink 2011 320

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The Kraumur List 2011 awarding procedure started with the selection committee, which consists of six people, selecting 20 albums for the Élite List of the Kraumur List. Then a selection committee consisting of 20 people selects the best 5 to 6 albums to become the prize albums.

Kraumur Music Fund introduces the allocation of grants to Icelandic artists and projects this summer, autumn and winter 2011. Over ISK 2 million is allocated to six projects introducing Icelandic music on the home market; the Conquest 2011.

Quirk and colleagues concluded in their work that mycorrhizal fungi concentrate their activity on weatherable nutrients24. Indeed, the abiotic kinetic reactivity of calcium bearing minerals alone could not explain the level of accumulated calcium oxalate in this study. The abiotic dissolution rate of calcium from dolomite, the dominating calcium bearing mineral in limestone, is about five orders of magnitude higher than from anorthite26,28 (at pH 4), which is highly abundant in basalt and gabbro (Table 2). However, biotic calcium dissolution in this study was significantly higher from gabbro than limestone. These findings suggest that ectomycorrhizal weathering is highly targetted and enhanced by calcium-bearing minerals but the rate of oxalate release by P. involutus is not controlled soley by the calcium concentration in a mineral or rock. The accumulation of calcium oxalate indicates rates of calcium dissolution that exceed biological demand by the fungi and the plants and the relatively low solubility of calcium oxalate. High levels of calcium may actually be toxic to fungi. Wood rotting fungi have been reported to form caclium oxalate crystals as a form of detoxification43, thus calcium oxalate formation in this study may have reduced a possible negative effect of free calcium on fungal growth.

The extent of calcium oxalate acumulation on the ectomycorrhizal hyphae alongside photosynthate translocation to the fungal hyphae clearly show that ectomycorrhizal weathering is indeed ultimately driven by the carbon supply provided by the plant. However, calcium abundance in the silicate rocks, minerals and limestone tested appears not to be the sole driver for targetted fungal weathering via exudation of oxalate to mobilize nutrients. This study provides indirect evidence that plant and fungal nutrient element contents in minerals, such as magnesium or phosphorus may contribute to the specific allocation of fungal exudates and biological weathering activity, but the main chemical sink for secreted oxalate is the formation of crystaline calcium oxalate, irrespective of the chemistry of the minerals.


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